& SCRIMSHAW ......
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QUICK LINKS: IVORY
LAWS - Fossil
Walrus - Boar
Tusk - Whale
teeth - Mammoth
Any and all Elephant Ivory is banned entry into or exported out of the USA.
The Obama administration on Tuesday, Feb 11, announced a ban on nearly all ivory sales in the United States.
Part of the new National Strategy on Wildlife Trafficking , the ban is intended to end a trade that threatens to wipe out the worlds largest land animal. The administration said that for the first time, vendors must prove beyond any doubt that ivory offered for sale complies with the Endangered Species Act.
Administration officials said
authenticity can be established only with a permit from the
U.S. government or a foreign government showing that the ivory
was imported before a ban in 1989. Antique ivory, older than a
century, is also exempted, with proof of age. Even with a permit, the
sale of ivory will not be allowed across state boundaries, according
to an administration official.
In 1987 I secured a good supply of elephant tusk and have the 1975 bill of lading for its entry into the USA. However, I now can't sell any of it because I live in California where it has been banned to sell.
In 1986 I developed a method called "full ivory overlay". A slab of ivory is cushioned underneath with a layer of exotic hardwood. This not only gives additional character to a knife, it also gives stability to the expansion rate of the ivory. I have never had any cracks develop in the ivory using this method! Thinner layers of wood work too.
Another way to add ivory and scrimshaw to your knife
at a greatly reduced cost is an oval inlay. This is a good way to
upgrade your knife with artistry and not be so reluctant to use it.
I currently do this with mammoth ivory and fossil walrus ivory.
Click here to see knives for sale made with mammoth ivory
FOSSIL WALRUS TUSK
Alaskan fossil walrus tusk ivory is one of the rarest and most beautiful of all the ivories available. Buried for approximately 100 to 3000 years, the ancient tusks and artifacts have been excavated from privately owned land at old village sites located on St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea.
Due to the mineral deposits in which they lay over the centuries, the originally white ivory has slowly taken on an exotic array of warm colors ranging from creams and golden tans to chocolate browns-- oranges to dark reds-- even an occasional rare splash of blues or green. Fossilized walrus is not only unique in beauty, but is also a very durable and stable handle material.
Whenever possible, each piece is kept intact as an artifact and polished in its natural shape. A blade style and size is selected to symmetrically go with the unique size and shape of each piece.
The distinctive character and growing rarity of fossil walrus ivory makes each knife a truly lasting, one-of-a-kind piece of art.
Click here to see knives for sale made with fossil walrus
I have a very small supply of Hawaiian boar tusks, both the long lower and the shorter, heavier upper. Because of their curled shape, there are only a couple of blade designs that go symmetrically with them. They sure do make a unique presentation in a knife collection!
Heavy upper tusk and long slender lower tusk
Ivory whale teeth come from the long, narrow, lower jaw of the sperm whale. This whale roams the warm oceans worldwide diving up to two miles deep in search for giant squid. One can only imagine the battles that go on in the depths! Once hunted for its blubber and the precious sperm oil in its head, these teeth in the USA have become extremely rare due to the prohibition of whale hunting under the Marine Endangered Species Act of 1972. Only teeth that were registered at that time are legal to use.
In years past I have made knives with whale tooth handles for Whaler's Village Museum on Maui. Occasionally I still make a few ivory handled knives for Lahaina Scrimshaw. About 15 years ago I bought a few whale teeth, but I only have a couple small teeth left.
WOOLY MAMMOTH IVORY
When digging for gold in Alaska, miners sometimes
unearth ancient ivory tusks from an extinct species of elephant best
known as wooly mammoth.
The largest source of mammoth tusks is from Siberia. Russian exports of mammoth ivory - the only type of ivory legally imported into the United States - reached 40 tons last year, up from just 2 tons in 1989.
In Siberia the tusks emerge with the spring thaw or
after heavy rains, or along the eroding banks of rivers. A boom in
gas and oil investment has added another source, as crews dig wells
and dig ditches for pipelines. Fresh from the permafrost, mammoth
ivory is nearly pristine, though with a characteristic green patina.
But if left outside and exposed to the elements, it will disintegrate
within three years into worthless splinters.
Having been buried for 8,000 to 12,000 years, some of these tusks have a lot of deep cracks while others are amazingly sound. Much of the interior of a tusk is light colored similar to that of normal elephant ivory.
The colorful "bark" on the outside of the tusk, however, is highly sought after. When sanded and polished, the shallow exterior cracks cause a highly colorful veining affect from minerals that had slowly penetrated into the ivory.
Click here to see pocket knives for sale made mammoth ivory
Simple scratching on polished bones and ivory teeth,
then filling in with soot or India ink was the beginning of an
original American art form. During the days of whaling while going to
and from whaling areas, sailors would pass some of their time making
rudimentary drawings and pictures on polished ivory teeth. Now,
centuries later, scrimshanders put true art into their masterpieces
by using lines and dots that achieve almost photographic quality. Although
it is traditional to use black ink on white ivory, many of the
modern day artists use full color.
Most of the scrim I had done in the past was by Linda Petree in Alaska. When Linda's quality began to deteriate I started using Elizabeth Dolebare to create some wonderful scrimshaw. Another scrimshaw artist I use is Bob Hergert (Micro-scrim).
Here is a link that will take you to an extremely informative and educational site about ivory and the maritime folk art we all know as scrimshaw: http://www.scrimshawcollectors.com/
A frequently encountered misconception is that all ivory is "illegal", especially elephant ivory, indicated by that oft heard phrase "I thought ivory was illegal". NOT! The following is a summary of the international and U.S. Fish & Wildlife laws which regulate the commerce of ivory:
The international trade in wildlife and plants is regulated by the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species (C.I.T.E.S.) [a multinational protege of the United Nations]. Formed in 1973, the aim is to establish worldwide controls over plants & wildlife that require protecting due to declining populations. Headquartered in Switzerland, C.I.T.E.S., delegates meet every two years to review data & set new quotas to increase, decrease or maintain the level of protection on individual species. C.I.T.E.S. regulations do not control a country's internal commerce, only the international trade between member nations.
The State of California has
gone beyond the federal restrictions, making it illegal to sell or
intend to sell any elephant ivory or
even if it is a genuine antique. Also,
elephant ivory or whale teeth can be legally shipped into the State
for commercial purposes. However,
it is legal
to own and bring into California, but you can't sell it.
Link to California law: http://law.onecle.com/california/penal/653o.html
Enforcement is by California Department of Fish and Wildlife.
Elephant and whale tooth ivory can not be shipped into or out of the U.S.A. All orders of oosik, walrus, fossil walrus, hippo or warthog ivory that are to be shipped out of the U.S. require a re-export permit which costs $100 per shipment and takes 30-45 days to acquire (considerably less time than they used to). This $100 fee must be included with foreign orders for these ivories. Mammoth and mastodon ivories do not require a permit.
WITHIN THE UNITED STATES
Wildlife product commerce is regulated on a state and federal level. Interstate (between states) commerce of wildlife products in the United States is regulated by the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1972 by the Dept. of the Interior/U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service & by the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 administered by National Marine Fisheries Service. A review of Federal wildlife law in the following paragraphs.
Each state has a Department of Fish & Wildlife or Game Department located in the state's capitol city. You check with your state game officials before buying wildlife products for resale (private ownership is not restricted). To find out about your state's wildlife laws, call the state Fish & Game Dept.- Law Enforcement Division in your capitol city. You can ask them about the regulations but have them mail you a copy, then read it. Wildlife agents are often an incredibly poor source of accurate info.
AFRICAN ELEPHANT-- Federal Law: It is legal to own, buy, sell or ship within the United States. However, not legal to sell in California or ship into. It is on the C.I.T.E.S. Endangered Species List. Importing, buying, and selling of African elephant ivory is not allowed internationally. It cannot be imported into or exported out of the U.S. or practically any other country of the world. Again, it is legal to own, buy, sell or ship within the United States (except California) and there are no permits or registration requirements (those were required for importation into the U.S.).
The raw elephant ivory available now is all old "estate" ivory which was legally imported years ago.
ASIAN ELEPHANT-- On the U.S. & C.I.T.E.S. Endangered Species List. Importing, buying, and selling of Asian elephant ivory is not allowed internationally or interstate within the U. S.
HIPPOPOTAMUS & WARTHOG-- Protected but not endangered. Once it has been imported into the U.S. no permit or documentation is necessary to buy or sell these ivories interstate.
Hippos are dangerous animals and a serious problem in many parts of Africa. They account for more human deaths per year than crocodiles and poisonous snakes combined. Populations are frequently thinned out through government culling operations. The meat, hides and ivory are utilized. Warthogs are also very common and are hunted for food. A $30 export permit is required to ship these ivories out of the U.S.
MAMMOTH & MASTODON-- Different animals, different looking tusks, the cut ivory looks the same. Buying and selling this 8,000-12,000 year old ivory is completely unrestricted. A great deal of this ivory in cut form looks practically identical to elephant ivory (except for the outer layer where all the color and weathering is).
The people at U.S. Fish & Wildlife Forensics Laboratory discovered a reliable indicator for differentiating between prehistoric mammoth and modern elephant ivory. Color is no indication; it is the angle that the cross grain lines bisect themselves. Angles of less than 90% indicate that it's mammoth/mastodon, angles greater than 120% show that it's elephant. This information is now being shared with customs and wildlife agents around the world so that mammoth ivory will clear customs inspections and not be subject to seizures or delays.
SPERM WHALE-- An endangered species regulated by the Marine Mammal Protection Act. Importation for commercial purposes has been prohibited since 1973. Interstate sales of registered pre-act teeth with scrimshaw is allowed under a special federal permit. Unregistered pre-act teeth can no longer be registered and cannot be transported across interstate lines for commercial purposes. They can be sold intrastate as long as state law does not prohibit. Antique scrimshaw (100 years plus) can be sold interstate.
I do not buy or sell whale teeth.
WALRUS (non-fossil)-- Regulated by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service under the 1972 Marine Mammal Protection Act. Raw walrus ivory predating the Dec. 21, 1972 law, tusks bearing the Alaska state walrus ivory registration tags or post-law walrus ivory that has been carved or scrimshawed by an Alaskan native (Eskimo) are legal to buy, possess, and sell. Raw walrus ivory obtained after 12/21/72 is not legal to buy or sell unless both parties are Eskimo (it is legal to own). A $100 export permit is required to ship walrus ivory or oosik (legal as per above) out of the United States.
FOSSIL WALRUS IVORY-- Not restricted as it pre-dates the 1972 cutoff, it is legal to buy and sell anywhere within the United States. Shipping ivory or oosik (fossil walrus penal bone) out of the U. S. requires a $100 permit.